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Krishi Vigyan

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Year: 2016, Volume: 4, Issue: 2

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Title: Assessment of Sulphur Oxidising Bacterial Inoculums on Groundnut Yield in Pudukkottai District of Tamil Nadu

By: Noorjehan A K A Hanif, V Krishnamoorthi

  • Abstract

    An on farm research entitled “Assessment of Sulphur Oxidising Bacterial (SOB) inoculums on groundnut yield” was conducted during 2014–2015 to improve the sulphur availability to groundnut which in turn directly contribute to higher pod yield. The technologies compared in this study were farmer friendly and cost effective. The field experiment was laid out in five replications at five locations with three treatments in Aranthangi block of Pudukkottai district. The treatments were T1: Farmers’ Practice i.e. No application of sulphur nutrition, T2: Gypsum application at flowering stage @ 400Kg/ha and T3: Seed treatment with Sulphur Oxidising bacterial inoculums @ 1kg/ha and Rhizobium @ 1kg/ha and soil application of SOB @ 5kg/ha on 45 DAS + Gypsum 400kg/ha. The results revealed that the treatment T3 recorded significantly higher yield (2109.6 kg/ha) compared with T2 (2012.6 kg/ha) and T1 (1962.4 kg/ha) with more number of pods per plant (39.4), shelling percentage (71.8%), higher benefit to cost ratio (BCR) and improved soil sulphur content after the harvest of the groundnut crop. Hence it was inferred that under micro level situation, use of sulphur oxidising bacterial inoculums certainly improve soil sulphur nutrition that result in sustainable higher yield.

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Title: Comparative Performance of Different Varieties of Rice in Muktsar District of Punjab

By: Balkaran Singh Sandhu, Nirmaljit Singh Dhaliwal

  • Abstract

    A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2013, 20 and 20 at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sri Muktsar Sahib (Punjab), to find out the best suitable variety of rice for the area. PR 111, PR 114, PR 121, PR 122, PR 123 and PR 124 were the six different varieties tested under this experiment. Fifty Per cent flowering was earlier in variety PR 124 as compared to PR 111, PR 121 and PR 123 and was statistically at par with PR 114 and PR 122. However, among days taken to maturity, variety PR 111 matured earlier (139) and statistically differ from PR 121 (141), PR 124 (141.5) and PR 123 (143.7), PR 114 (145) and PR 122 (146.3). Variety PR 121 produced higher number of effective tiller (447.3/m2), which was statistically at par with PR 122 (441.7/m2) and PR 114 (435.3/m2) but significantly superior from PR 111 (414/m2), PR 123 (413.3/m2) and PR 124 (412.5/m2). Higher grain yield was recorded with variety PR 121 (79.3 q/ha), which was statistically at par with PR 124 (78.5 q/ha), PR 122 (77.3 q/ha) and PR 123 (77 q/ha) but was significantly superior from PR 111(68.5 q/ha), PR 114(71.5 q/ha). The varieties PR 121 and PR 124 produced higher yield and also matured in less time. So these two varieties are best suitable for the area.

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Title: Correlation Study of Weather and Growth Parameters in Banana

By: C D Badgujar

  • Abstract

    Weather is an uncontrolled and important factor, the effect of which on banana is difficult to quantify under the field experiments. Phenological studies of the banana crop based on the meteorological data of last 30 years (1980 – 2009) was subjected for the correlation analysis and evaluated. The study indicated that the rainfall, relative humidity had positive correlation with the bunch weight but negative correlation with temperature. Significantly negative correlation of bunch weight was recorded with wind velocity, evaporation and sunshine hours.

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Title: Determination of Engineering Properties of Aonla (Phyllanthus emblica L or Emblica officinalis G) Fruits

By: VM Ingale, H G More, V P Kad

  • Abstract

    The engineering properties of Aonla (Phyllanthus emblica L or Emblica officinalis G) fruits are pre requisites in designing the equipments for handling, storage and processing of the aonla fruits. It is essential to determine the relevant characteristics of such fruits but this kind of properties appeared to be lacking in the literature. Hence this study was undertaken to determine some physical and mechanical properties such as size, shape, roundness, sphericity, volume, density, surface area and penetration force for the design of pricking machine for aonla fruits. The fruits of four Aonla cultivars namely Chakaiya, Kanchan, Krishna and Francis were used for this study. The fruits were cleaned with water to remove all dirt adhering to the fruits and the experiments were conducted at room temperature. All physical and mechanical parameters were studied for 10 fruits from each cultivar. The Fresh fruits were randomly selected for determination of physical properties. The shape of the Aonla fruits were found to be ranging from round to prolate. The size of the fruits was characterized using length, breadth and thickness i.e. major, intermediate & minor axis of Aonla fruits. The average volume of the fruits ranged from 31.565 to 42.809 cm3 and the average sphericity ranged from 0.954 to 0.995 whereas the range of the rolling resistance found to be 12.51 to 21.990. The range of fruit size was observed to be 3.10 to 4.47 cm. It was also observed that the volume was higher for the variety Francis with 42.809 cm3 followed by Kanchan, Krishna and Chakaiya with 37.565, 31.565 and 27.513 cm3, respectively. The maximum value of volume was found in Francis (84.245 cm3) and minimum in Chakaiya (31.115 cm3). The rolling resistances of the Aonla fruits of Chakaiya, Kanchan, Krishna and Francis varieties were found to be 19.167°, 18.890°, 16.384° & 14.653°, respectively. The maximum value of the rolling resistance was found in Chakaiya variety (21.990°) and minimum in Francis variety (12.310°). The penetration force required to penetrate into the fruits of Kanchan, Chakaiya, Krishna and Francis varieties of Aonla was found to 37.62, 26.29, 21.98 and 19.35 N, respectively. The maximum penetration force was found in Kanchan variety because of more compactness of the fruit and minimum in Francis variety.

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Title: Economic Analysis of Jewellery Developed from Leftovers and Solid Waste

By: G Kaur, D Kaur, V Gandotra

  • Abstract

    The investigation entitled was carried out in Ludhiana city. An interview schedule was prepared for the purpose of collection of data for design development from leftovers and solid waste. For collection of data 90 respondents between the age group of 17–25 years were selected through purposive random sampling technique from three colleges of Ludhiana city. The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents were between 17–21 years of age group and were higher secondary, belonged to nuclear families and had monthly family income ranged between Rs. 25,001/- to Rs. 50,000/-. Another interview schedule was prepared to study the cost effectiveness of the developed jewellery. For this purpose same sample of ninety respondents were selected and developed jewellery were shown to them. All the jewellery sets were highly appreciated on the basis of wear ability, colour combination, overall impact and appearance. Majority of the respondents rated all the jewellery sets as very good. The quoted prices of the jewellery sets were found to be adequate there by 15.74 to 66.67 per cent profit can be earned by making jewellery developed leftovers and solid waste.

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Title: Effect of Application of Various Inputs by the Farmers and the Yield of Spring Maize Hybrids

By: Jatinder Manan, Manoj Sharma, Gurmeet Singh, Gobinder Singh

  • Abstract

    A study was conducted to assess the use of various inputs by farmers in the cultivation of spring maize and its impact on yield obtained as compared to the recommendations made by the research institutes. The data suggested that farmers in Kapurthala district mainly opt for spring maize hybrids namely DKC 9108, 31Y45, Dow 2244 and P 1844 and achieved an average gross return of Rs 70,104 to Rs.76,860/ha. It was observed that farmers were applying urea in recommended dose but the time of application was different than the recommendations. As per recommendations, urea needs to be applied in three equal splits during basal, vegetative and tasseling stage. While, farmers were applying 75 per cent urea only during vegetative stage and 24 per cent during tasseling stage. In case of DAP, 63 per cent of farmers were adding higher quantity of phosphorus fertilizer than the recommended dose. Insecticide application was not adopted by 32.3 per cent of the farmers, simultaneously herbicide application was not adopted by 50 per cent farmers and only 29 per cent farmers applied insecticide and herbicide both in their fields. It was also observed that grain yield of spring maize during spring 2015 was reduced to 11.9 per cent as compared to spring 2014 season.

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Title: Effect of Fertility Levels and Varieties on Tuber Yield and Processing Quality of French Fry Grade Potato

By: K S Sandhu, M S Shahi, R K Sharma, Gurbax Singh

  • Abstract

    A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2013 to 2014, at Amritsar in split plot design having three potato varieties (Kufri Frysona, Kufri Chipsona 1 and Kufri Surya) in main plot and four fertility levels (F1; 187.5 kg N/ha [N 93.7kg (planting) + N 93.7kg (earthing)] + 62.5 kg P2O5 + 62.5 kg K2O/ha soil application; F2; 187.5 kg N/ha [N 84.7kg (planting) + N 84.7 kg (earthing) + 2 foliar spray (2% urea) at 60 and 80 days after planting] + 62.5 kg P2O5 + 62.5 kg K2O/ha; F3; 270 kg N/ha [N 135 kg (planting) + N 135 kg (earthing)] + 62.5 kg P2O5 + 90 kg K2O/ha; F4; 270 kg N [N 126 kg (planting) + N 126 kg (earthing) + 2 foliar spray (2% urea) at 60 and 80 days after planting]

    + 62.5 kg P2O5 + 90 K2O kg/ha.) in sub plots with three replications. French fry grade (FFG) tuber yield was significantly higher in F1 than F3, F4 and F2. Tuber dry matter and French fry color were in highly acceptable range throughout the fertility treatments. Significantly more number of Chip grade (45-75mm), processing grade (>45mm), total and French fry grade tubers (>75mm) were noticed in Kufri Chipsona 1 and Kufri Surya, respectively. Kufri Surya and Kufri Frysona produced significantly higher FFG tuber yield, whereas chip grade tuber yield was significantly highest in Kufri Chipsona1 (18.8 t/ha). Tuber dry matter was significantly higher in Kufri Frysona and Kufri Chipsona1 than Kufri Surya.

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Title: Effect of Packaging Material and Temperature on Firmness of Minimally Processed Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

By: Gagan Jyot Kaur, Jagbir Rehal

  • Abstract

    Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) are one of the most perishable horticultural produce with high nutritional value and short shelf life usually 1–3 days at ambient temperature. The market acceptance of mushroom is mainly affected by its colour and firmness. In the current study, experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on firmness ofminimally processed mushrooms. Mushrooms were packed in polythene bags (a) 100 gauge (b) 200 gauge (c) 300 gauge (with and without macroperforations)and stored at (i) 13°C (ii) 18°C (iii) 24°C (iv) 4±1°C (refrigeration temperature) and (v)18°C (deep freezer). It was observed that the samples packed in 200gauge polythene bags and stored at refrigeration temperature had a longer shelf life due to delayed deterioration in the firmness when compared to mushrooms stored at13,18 and 24°C. The mushrooms stored at deep freezer (?18°C) showed a different trend as the firmness increased significantly due to phase change of water present in the produce.

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Title: Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Growth Performance of Pre-Ruminant Buffalo Calves

By: P K Sharma, K A Prajapati, M K Choudhary

  • Abstract

    To study the effect of Probiotic (Saccharomyces cervisiae) supplementation in pre-ruminant (0–3 months age) buffalo calves, twenty buffalo calves were divided into two groups of ten calves each according to their body weight. One group was the control while the other group was supplemented with bacteria Saccharomyces cervisiae -containing Probiotic @ 15g/calf/d in milk for a period of two months under field condition. Fortnightly growth rate of calves revealed that the effect of Saccharomyces cervisiae was more effective (P<0.01) during first month of supplementation but could not sustain in the second month. Never the less, probiotic supplementation led to an overall improvement (P<0.05) in the growth rate of buffalo calves. It also helped in preventing occurrence of diarrhea and reduced mortality during early stage of life.

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Title: Empowerment of Farm Women through Income Generating Activities

By: L Pradhan, P Das, M P Nayak

  • Abstract

    Women empowerment is a process in which women gain greater share of control over resources material, human and intellectual and financial resources and control over decision making in the home, community, society, nation and to gain power. Economic independence is one of the means to empower the women. This study was undertaken in five blocks of Bhadrak district of Odisha comprising 150 numbers of respondents. The study revealed that, among various income generating activities, the extent of involvement of farm women in agro-processing (Rank I) then vegetable cultivation, mushroom cultivation, backyard poultry rearing, dairy farming, Goat farming, Craft making and vermin- composting etc. Promotion of income generating activities in rural areas not only enhance national productivity, generate employment but also help to develop economic independence, personal and social capabilities farm women. Economic empowerment, improved standard of living, self confidence, enhanced awareness, sense of achievement, increased social interaction, engagement in political activities, increased participation level in meeting, improvement in leadership qualities, involvement in solving problems related to women and community, decision making capacity in family and community are the positive outcome.

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Title: Evaluation of Sapota Cultivars for Growth and Yield Under Pune Conditions

By: S G Bhalekar, S U Chalak

  • Abstract

    A study on evaluation of eight year old eight sapota cultivars viz. Kalipatti, PKM 1, PKM 2, PKM Hy 7/1, Cricket Ball, CO 1, CO 2 and Kirti Bharti was carried out under National Agriculture Research Project, Ganeshkhind, Pune. The study revealed that the cv. PKM 1 was found vigorous in growth by showing maximum East-West spread (3.77 m), North- South spread (3.96 m). The average number of fruits/tree/yr (523.5) and fruit yield (46.2 kg) was recorded in cv. PKM 1 whereas the average fruit yield of other cultivars ranged between 2.16 kg/tree/yr for Cricket Ball to 24.0 kg/tree/yr for (PKM 2). It was noticed that maximum fruit weight (99.3 g) was found in cv. PKM 2, however, the varietal differences for fruit diameter and number of seeds/fruit were non-significant.

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Title: Impact of Heading Back and Pinching on Vegetative and Reproductive Parameters of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) under High Density Plantation

By: Hemant Saini, S Baloda, Vijay

  • Abstract

    An investigation to evaluate the effect of heading back and pinching on growth and yield parameters of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) under high density plantation was carried out at experimental orchard, Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the year 2013–14. There were two treatments i.e. heading back and pinching. Heading back at the level of 150, 175 and 200 cm was done in the month of March and compared with control (no heading back). Pinching i.e. no pinching, one pinching (last week of June), two pinchings (last week of June and July) and three pinchings (last week of June, July and August) were done on the headed back plants. The study revealed that all the treatments were effective in increasing the growth characters, however, heading back at the level of 200 cm and two pinchings were found most effective in increasing the growth characters i.e. number of sprouts per shoot, flowering intensity, fruit setting, number of fruits/plant and yield over control and other treatments. Plant height, plant spread and tree volume were significantly reduced by various heading back treatments, however, the effect of different numbers of pinching was found non significant in altering the plant height, spread and volume.

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Title: Impact of Training Course on Knowledge Gain of Mushroom Trainees

By: Kulvir Kaur

  • Abstract

    Eighty five trainees were imparted training on mushroom cultivation by conducting two vocational training courses. In order to evaluate these training prgrammes, present study was undertaken to find out knowledge gain by the participants and suggestions from the trainees in order to bring improvement in the coming training courses. It was found that majority of respondents joined the training course to adopt mushroom cultivation as an occupation and only 10.5 percent joined training course just to get certificate of training. Maximum gain in knowledge (94.1% and 92.9%) was observed for diseases of mushrooms, its prevention and variety of mushrooms, respectively. More emphasis on practical classes, supplying of printed material and wide publicity were three suggestions given by the participants for bringing improvement in future programmes.

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Title: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Different Tribes of Garo Hills districts of Meghalaya towards Scientific Horticulture

By: Tanmay Samajdar, Tarun Kumar Das, Biswajit Lahiri

  • Abstract

    The study was conducted in tribal areas of Garo Hills, Meghalaya during 2013 to evaluate the knowledge attitude and practices of different tribal farmer community towards scientific horticulture. A total of 150 tribal respondents, 30 each from Rabha, Hajong, Koch, Banai and Garo tribal area were selected randomly. The selected respondents were interviewed with the help of a semi structured interview schedule. It was found that majority (48%) of the respondents have primary level of education. 83.3 per cent of the farmers cultivate in their own land except Banai tribe where almost 50 per cent of the respondents cultivate on leased land. 70.7 per cent of the respondents have annual income between Rs. 30,000/- to Rs. 60,000/- from main source. Eighty four per cent of the respondents have farming experience between 3–9 years and above 12 years. It was also revealed that 96 and 81.3 per cent of the respondents have land under vegetables cultivation and orchard is less than 0.4 ha, respectively. In the study area it was found that 49.3 per cent of the respondents have farming as primary occupation and majority (68%) of the respondents have poor level of knowledge and neutral attitude towards modern horticulture, respectively. It was also found that education, source of land and farming experience were negatively correlated with knowledge level which was mainly because with higher education, respondents loose interest in farming and their involvement in farming reduces and thus knowledge level in horticulture comes down. Results of the study revealed that knowledge, attitude and cultivation practices level were considerably low among almost all the tribes though it varied from one community to other living in a same geographical area.

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Title: Nutritional Status of Leaf and Fruit Yield of Sweet Orange Influenced by Foliar Application of Potassium

By: Vijay, R P S Dalal, Hemant Saini

  • Abstract

    A field study to evaluate the effect of foliar application of potassium sources at various concentration and spray schedule on sweet orange cv. Jaffa was undertaken at experimental orchard, Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the year 2013–14. The results revealed that the foliar application of potassium nitrate @ 2 and 4 per cent and potassium sulphate at 1.5 and 3.0 per cent improved nitrogen and potash content of leaf over control (water spray) irrespective of spray schedule. Phosphorus content of leaf was not influenced due to K sources at various concentrations. Spray schedule did not affect the nutritional status of the leaf. There was an increase in fruit yield with the increase in K doses of KNO3 and K2SO4. The maximum yield (74.76 kg/plant) was recorded with the application of KNO3 at 4 per cent. Fruit yield was found the highest with three sprays of K in the last week of April, May and August but at par with two sprays in the last week of April and August.

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Title: Performance Evaluation of Tractor Operated Paddy Straw Mulcher

By: Aseem Verma, Arshdeep Singh, Amandeep Singh, Gurinder Singh Sidhu, Anoop Dixit

  • Abstract

    Paddy straw management in combine harvested paddy fields is a major problem in paddy-wheat rotation. A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of tractor operated paddy straw mulcher in combine harvested paddy field. Effective field capacity of the tractor operated paddy straw mulcher was 0.32 ha/h at forward speed of 2.64 km/h. Average fuel consumption for the machine was 5.88 l/h. The percent chopped straw size by paddy straw mulcher up to 10 cm was 83.44%. No or very little straw accumulation was observed in operation of spatial no till drill for direct drilling of wheat after the operation of paddy straw mulcher. Average grain yield for treatment T1 (Paddy straw mulcher + wheat sowing with spatial no-till drill) was 2.39 and 0.33% less than T2 (paddy straw chopper-cum-spreader + wet mixing with rotavator + no till drill) and T3 (clean field + disc harrow + cultivator x 2 + planter + traditional seed drill) respectively whereas the cost of operation for treatment T1 was 24.38 and 23.55% less than T2 and T3 respectively.

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Title: Performance of Various Hybrids and Fertility Levels on Yield Attributes, Yield and Economics of Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

By: Somendra Nath, Sandeep Kumar, S K Kannaujiya

  • Abstract

    The present investigation was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad for two years. Twenty one treatment combinations comprised of three levels of fertility (N120 kg ha?1, N150 kg ha?1 and P60K60P75K75 kg ha?1) with seven hybrids viz. (SHP 01, SHP 02, SHP 03, SHP 04, SHP 05, SHP 06 and N180P90K90 NDRH 2) were executed in split plot design keeping fertility levels in main plot with four replications. The soil of experimental plot was silty loam in texture with low in organic carbon and nitrogen, medium in phosphorus and high in potassium. The crop received normal recommended agronomic practices and plant protection measures. The highest grain and straw yield was recorded with N180kg ha?1, P90K90 which remained at par with N150 kg ha?1 but significantly superior over N120 kg ha?1. Hybrid P75K75P60K60 SHP 04 registered significantly higher values of grain, straw yield and nutrient uptake components over hybrids SHP 01, SHP 02, SHP 03, SHP 05 and SHP 06 and was found at par with NDRH 2 during both the years. The interaction effect of the fertility levels and rice hybrids was found non significant increase in grain yield of hybrid SHP 04 (71.37 q ha?1). The highest net return of Rs. 45,082/- and Rs. 54,495/- and B:C ratio of 1.69 and 1.96 was recorded with SHP 04 fertilized with N180 kg ha?1.P90K90

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Title: Popularization of Maize Production Technology through Front Line Demonstration in Tribal Areas of East Godavari

By: V Jyothi Swaroopa, D Mounica, U Pavani, Dhanu Sree

  • Abstract

    The study was carried out during 2011–14 at farmer\\\’s fields of 7 agency mandals of East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. Front Line Demonstration on maize crop was conducted on an area of 100 ha with active participation of 250 farmers with improved technologies composed of DHM 117 variety and integrated crop management (deep ploughing + seed treated with thiram 75% WP @ 3g/kg seed). The results revealed that maximum mean grain yield 85.3 q/ha with an increase in 75.6 per cent over local check (64.6 q/ha). Improved technologies of maize recorded progressively increased average grain yield during four years of study, from 62.0 to 85.3 q/ha. The extension gap can be bridged by popularizing package of practices of maize including improved variety (DHM 117), use of optimum seed rate, balanced nutrition and recommended plant protection measures. Improved technologies gave higher net return of Rs. 67,925/-ha with benefit cost ratio 3.87 as compared to local check (Rs. 63,543/-ha, benefit cost ratio 3.82).

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Title: Physico-Chemical and Biological Properties of Soil under Sorghum – Wheat Farming System of Bulandshahr and Meerut Districts in Uttar Pradesh

By: Ravindra Kumar, R R Singh, Manoj Singh, Laxmi Kant, Yogesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    The depth wise soils of sorghum- wheat farming system from different locations were analyzed to find the physico – chemical and biological properties like bulk density, pH, EC, CEC, organic carbon, macro- micronutrients and bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH of soil samples varied from 7.9 to 8.7 and range of electrical conductivity of 1:2 soil water extraction was 0.139 to 0.347 d Sm?1 at 25°C. None of the soil was found in saline category. CEC of soil varied from 9.21 to 18.25 c mol (p+) kg?1 and was positively and significantly correlated with clay content. The organic carbon content which declined with soil depth varied from 2.4 to 7.5 g kg?1 soil. Organic carbon was correlated positively and highly significantly with available nitrogen, total nitrogen, positively with available P, K, micronutrient and microbial biomass carbon and negatively with bulk density and CEC in all the cropping sequences soil. The available nitrogen ranged between 41.25 to 107.49 kg ha?1. It decline with soil depth. The available phosphorus and potassium ranged between 4.48 to 14.84 and 68.30 to 325.00 kg ha?1and declined with increasing soil depth. Among the different cationic micronutrients with exception of zinc the availability of rest micronutrients was in sufficiency range. In some case the availability of zinc was in deficient range. DTPA extractable Cu ranged from 0.075 to 1.983, Fe 2.221 to 8.474, Mn 0.408 to 5.551 and Zn 0.107 to 1.232 mg kg ?1 soil. The availability of these micronutrients declined with increase in soil depth. Except Mn and available potassium others nutrients were significantly and positively correlated with organic carbon. The biological properties of soil, the range of bacteria varied from 2.0x 102 to 6.5x 108, fungi 1.0x 102 to 8.6x 104 and actinomycetes 1.0x 102 to 8.0×104 count g?1 soil. Microbial biomass carbon 75 to 400 ?g g?1 soil and dehydrogenase activity 10 to 90 ?g TPF g?1day?1. All the microbial population, microbial biomass carbon and dehyrogenase activity declined as the soil depth increases.

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Title: Role and Contribution of Rural Women in Vegetable Production

By: Anuradha Ranjan Kumari, Laxmikant, Ravindra Kumar, Manoj Singh

  • Abstract

    The study was conducted in Salempur and Bhatpar Rani Blocks of Deoria district in Uttar Pradesh to ascertain women participation in vegetable production. 120 houses having land for vegetable cultivation were selected. 60 rural women from 60 houses selected from each block. Female respondents from each house were interviewed. The data were collected personally through structured interview schedule. Data collected included the extent of participation and decision making of women in various activities of vegetable production. Study revealed that in vegetable cultivation various intervention points are addressable. Women were involved in operations such as cleaning of land, sowing of seed, transplanting of vegetable nursery, hoeing and weeding, scaring of birds and rodents, harvesting and processing of vegetable and storage of seed. Non participation of women in various operations was due to more fatigue, requirement of more muscle power, lack of knowledge and awareness with respect to decision making. It was observed that women played only supportive role and less participation of women in decision making could be attributed to customs, traditions, social barrier, their illiteracy, ignorance and less participation in extension programmes. Women’ education, technical training and adequate extension facilities can create a positive impact leading to a better tomorrow.

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Title: Suggested and Actual Application of Chemical Fertilizers in the Agricultural Sector of Kerala

By: N Karunakaran

  • Abstract

    The adverse effects of agriculture on environment are direct and indirect in nature. Direct effects are due to the overuse of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Globally India ranks third in fertiliser consumption compared to other countries. The consumption of chemical fertilisers in Kerala is also high with respect to other states. To study the overuse of chemical fertilisers in the state, among six crops selected, rubber and banana cultivators used overdose of chemical fertilisers and under use of organic manures and lime compared to other crops. The overuse of NPK fertilisers compared to suggested dose as contrast to very low NPK soil fertility status in the rubber plantations is a paradox in the agriculture sector of Kerala.

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Title: Capacity Building: An Effective Tool for Augmenting Poultry Production in Himachal Pradesh

By: Rakesh Thakur, Varun Sankhyan, P K Dogra

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